Timeline

This page will evolve. Within the year there is no chronological order. The earliest, not dated examples can be found among traditional activities.

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John Cage

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George Brecht

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Pauline Oliveros
Walter Thompson

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Alison Knowles

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Christian Wolff

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Carole Finer
Cornelius Cardew

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Dick Higgins
Frederic Rzewski

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Peter Brötzmann

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Trevor Wishart

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Richard Reason
Howard Skempton
Lawrence ‘Butch’ Morris

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Alan Brett

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Christopher Hobbs

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Elliott Sharp
Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen
Bobby McFerrin

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John Zorn

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Mathius Shadow-Sky
Bruno Faidutti
Henrik Ehland Rasmussen
Michael Pisaro

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📜 Cage, John. 1973 [1961]. Silence. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press.

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Makoto Nomura

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📜 Cardew, Cornelius. 1969. “A Scratch Orchestra: Draft Constitution.” The Musical Times, Vol. 110, No. 1516, 125th Anniversary Issue, June: 617-619.

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📜 Xenakis, Iannis. 1971. Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

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📜 Stuart, Wendy Bross. 1974. "Coast Salish Gambling Music." Canadian Folk Music Journal, vol. 2: 3-12. https://cjtm.icaap.org/content/2/v2art2.html
📜 Nyman, Michael. 1999 [1974]. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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📜 Fleugelman, Andrew, ed. 1976. The New Games Book. San Francisco: The Headlands Press, Inc.

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Cornelius Cardew

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📜 Mathieu, William Allaudin. 1991. The Listening Book: Discovering Your Own Music. Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala Publications.

John Cage

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Dick Higgins

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📜 Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1999. “Inuit Throat-Games and Siberian Throat Singing: A Comparative, Historical, and Semiological Approach.” Ethnomusicology, Autumn, Vol. 43, No. 3: 399-418. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology.

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📜 Brown, Harko. 2006. Traditional Maori Games. n.p. https://www.wavesouthcanterbury.co.nz/media/4693/tmgharkobrown160120.pdf
📜 Chase, Stephen Timothy. 2006. “Improvised Experimental Music and the Construction of a Collaborative Aesthetic.” PhD diss., University of Sheffield. https://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/14904/1/440929.pdf
📜 Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl. 2006. Sound is Multi-Dimensional: Parameter analysis as a tool for creative music making. https://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/sound-is-multi-dimensional-parameter-analysis-as-a-tool-for-creat

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George Brecht

📜 Brackett, John Lowell. 2008. John Zorn: Tradition and Transgression. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
📜 Agrell, Jeffrey. 2008. Improvisation Games for Classical Musicians. Chicago: GIA Publications.

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📜 Flanagan, Mary. 2009. Critical Play: Radical Game Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

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Lawrence ‘Butch’ Morris

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📜 Cheng, William. 2014. Sound Play: Video Games and the Musical Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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📜 Upton, Brian. 2015 The Aesthetic of Play. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
📜 Sharp, John. 2015. Works of Game: On the Aesthetics of Games and Art. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

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📜 Weiss, Philipp. 2017. “Game Pieces and Game Elements.” Master's Thesis, Royal Conservatoire The Hague. http://sonology.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Thesis-Philipp_Weiss-Final.pdf

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Carole Finer

📜 Dolscheid, Sarah, Simge Çelik, Hasan Erkan, Aylin Küntay, Asifa Majid. 2020. “Space-pitch associations differ in their susceptibility to language.”, Cognition, Volume 196, March: 104073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.104073

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Frederic Rzewski

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📜 DiPiero, Dan. 2022. Contingent Encounters: Improvisation In Music and Everyday Life. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.12066852.
📜 Cubitt, Edward, 2022. Music is Easy: A Flow-state Music Learning Method. Self-published, Edward Cubitt.

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Peter Brötzmann

📜 Chou, Gabrielle. 2023. “Play Makes Perfect: An Exploration of Game and Play Elements in Composition and Performance.” PhD diss., City University of New York.
https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6458&context=gc_etds

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